In the case of Gao v Wang [2022] NSWDC 121, the New South Wales District Court delivered a comprehensive judgment addressing several key legal aspects and the limitations of civil appeals. This article aims to dissect and analyse the critical elements of the case, focusing on the key offences, legal context, considerations in sentencing, and the ultimate sentencing decision.

Key Offences and Legal Context

The crux of the case revolves around an appeal from a decision of an Assessor in the Small Claims Division of the Local Court under section 39(2) of the Local Court Act 2007 (NSW). The appeal was based on the grounds of alleged procedural unfairness and a misunderstanding of the role of Mr. Chang Wang, the defendant, in the context of a rebate agreement for a property purchase.


Legal Framework

The appeal was lodged under specific provisions of the Local Court Act 2007, which delineate the grounds for appealing decisions from the Small Claims Division to the District Court. The focus was on whether there was a lack of jurisdiction or a denial of procedural fairness in the original decision. The legislative backdrop, including the Civil Procedure Act 2005 (NSW), played a crucial role in framing the arguments and the court’s decision-making process.

Key Allegations

The plaintiff, Mr. Ming Gao, contended that procedural fairness was denied as the Assessor allegedly failed to consider relevant material, specifically the role of Chang Wang (Respondent) in the context of a disputed rebate agreement between Gao and Blue Ocean Pty Ltd. Gao argued that Wang, not being a director of Blue Ocean at the relevant time, was personally liable for the rebate agreement and the Assessor ultimately rejected his claim and awarded costs to Wang.


Examination of Procedural Fairness

A pivotal aspect of the case was the examination of procedural fairness. The court scrutinised the conduct of the original hearing, including how the Assessor managed the submissions and evidence presented. The court was mindful of the principles set out in precedents like Kioa v West and Re Minister for Immigration and Multicultural Affairs; Ex parte Lam, which emphasise the flexibility and context-specific nature of procedural fairness.

Role of the Assessor and Plaintiff’s Representation

The court carefully considered the role played by the Assessor in guiding the proceedings, especially given the plaintiff’s self-representation and the informal nature of Small Claims proceedings. The court’s review extended to the Assessor’s interactions with both parties, ensuring that the principles of natural justice were upheld.



The court ultimately dismissed the appeal, concluding that procedural fairness was indeed afforded to the plaintiff in the original proceedings. This decision hinged on several key findings:

Assessor’s Conduct: The court found that the Assessor had not demonstrated bias or a preconceived notion against the plaintiff. Instead, she was seen as assisting the plaintiff in understanding the proceedings and the issues at hand.

Plaintiff’s Arguments: The court noted that the plaintiff’s arguments were heard and considered, but they failed to substantiate a breach of procedural fairness. The court also took note of the plaintiff’s lack of legal representation but affirmed that it did not translate into a procedural disadvantage under the circumstances.

Costs on an Indemnity Basis: In line with the Assessor’s decision, the court ordered the plaintiff to pay the defendant’s costs on an indemnity basis. This decision was influenced by the perceived hopelessness of the appeal and the nature of the Calderbank offer made prior to the appeal.



The case of Gao v Wang [2022] NSWDC 121 underscores the importance of procedural fairness in the judicial process, especially in the context of small claims and self-represented litigants. The court’s meticulous examination of the proceedings at the Small Claims Division, its adherence to legislative stipulations, and its balanced consideration of the arguments presented by both parties epitomise the rigorous approach taken in matters of civil appeal. This judgment not only provides clarity on the application of procedural fairness principles but also reinforces the responsibilities of appellants and the limitations of appeals in the Small Claims context.


Seeking Legal Advice in Similar Situations

Navigating the complexities of legal proceedings, especially for those representing themselves, can be challenging. It is crucial to understand your rights, the nuances of procedural fairness, and the specifics of your legal situation. If you find yourself in a similar situation as that of the Gao v Wang case, seeking professional legal advice is a wise step.

In this regard, reaching out to a law firm experienced in handling such matters, like the one represented by Daniel Wakim in this case, can be instrumental. 

Remember, while every legal case is unique, having skilled legal counsel can provide clarity, ensure your rights are protected, and guide you towards a fair and just outcome.